There are more than 30 sexually transmitted diseases that are induced by bacteria, viruses, fungi or unicellular organisms. Syphilis, gonorrhoea, ulcus molle (chancroid) and lymphogranuloma, are embedded in the Austrian law for sexually transmitted infections and are called the “classical” venereal diseases. Other such infections are for example HIV, trichomoniasis vaginalis, chlamydia, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes genitalis and scabies. Sexually transmitted infections that affect other organs include hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and cytomegalovirus infection.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), every day one million people are newly infected with on the four following sexually transmitted infections: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis or trichomoniasis vaginalis.
The infections often occur with either few, nonspecific or no symptoms at all. As a result, they often remain undetected for long periods of time and can thus be transmitted unknowingly through (unprotected) sexual contact. The use of safer sex tools can reduce the risk of transmission for most sexually transmitted infections.
The indicated information cannot replace neither an examination from a medical professional nor an appropriate treatment.
Trichomoniasis is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and caused by a single-celled parasite. The trichomonads are transmitted from person to person to the genitalia and the lower urinary tract as well as in the prostate and seminal vesicles. They can be the reason for itching, burning urination, or pain during sex. A typical symptom is a yellowish-greenish outflow, which smells very unpleasant. Often, however, no symptoms occur at all. If left untreated, there is a risk of infertility. Antibiotics are used for the treatment of trichomoniasis.
Using internal and external condoms prevents a transmission.
The human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause warts (papillomas) on or around the genitals and anus as well as cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. HPV can also be responsible for warts and cancer in the mouth and throat region.
Approximately 60-80% of humans come in contact with the virus at least once in their lifetime, most of them through sexual contact. In 95% of the cases, there are no symptoms present, the human immune system usually eliminates the virus after a few months.
A vaccination is available that protects against the most common types of viruses. Condoms as well as femidoms only partially protect against HPV, because skin-to-skin transmission is still possible.